Issued: April 29, 2016
FSNAU is pleased to announce the release of its 2015 Somalia Post Deyr Nutrition Analysis Technical Series Report.
The report reflects results from 40 standard nutrition surveys conducted by FSNAU between September through December 2015 across most regions and livelihood zones of Somalia, covering displaced urban and rural populations. The overall goal of these surveys were to establish the extent and the severity of acute malnutrition and determine the contributing factors of malnutrition among different livelihoods in Somalia in. These assessments were conducted in collaboration with Government institution (Ministries of Health) and partners.
- The 40 nutrition surveys covered 27 455 Children (6-59 months) from 16 538 households. Both Weight-for-Height and MUAC measurements were taken for the 34 surveys while, only Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) measurement was taken in the remaining 6 surveys due to security constraints.
- The national median GAM and SAM during this reporting period are 12.2 percent and 2.2 percent respectively. According to livelihood disaggregation, 11 out of 34 livelihoods surveyed using Weight-for-Height Z-Score, the prevalence of acute malnutrition is considered Critical and exceeds the UN trigger for emergency action (Global Acute Malnutrition-GAM ≥ 15%) while Serious levels of GAM (≥10 to <15%) were observed in 16 out of 34 population groups surveyed. Alert level of GAM (≥5 to <10%) were reported in the remaining seven.
- Highest prevalence of acute malnutrition (based on Weight for Height Z-Scores) was recorded among Dolow IDPs (25.0% GAM) and Guban Pastoral Livelihood Zone (22.3% GAM). Critical to Very Critical levels of acute malnutrition were also recorded among rural livelihoods of South Gedo Pastoral (Gedo Region) and Coastal Deeh (Central Regions) based on MUAC measurements (i.e. 10.7% or more of children having a Mid-Upper Arm Circumference-MUAC below the 12.5 centimeters threshold).
- Over the past seven consecutive seasons, Critical levels of GAM were sustained among the following population groups: Garowe IDPs (Nugaal Region), Galkayo IDPs (Mudug Region), Mataban and Beletweye Districts (pastoral parts of Hiran Region), North Gedo Pastoral (Gedo Region), North Gedo Riverine (Gedo Region) and Dolow IDPs (Gedo Region). Sustained Critical level of GAM in the above mentioned areas is symptomatic of the protracted nature of the nutrition crisis among these population groups and calls for multifaceted interventions that address contributing factors and underlying causes of acute malnutrition in these areas. Relative nutritional improvements in population groups such as IDPs located in Mogadishu were observed in recent seasons, primarily due to sustained humanitarian interventions which could be reversed if humanitarian assistance is scaled down as witnessed during the Gu 2014.
- The overall stunting prevalence in the 2015 Deyr assessment in Somalia is 8.9 percent and is considered Low (<20%). However, there are major differences between different parts and population groups of the country: 12.6 percent in South and Central Somalia; 7.7 percent in the Northeast; 2.7 percent in the Northwest; and 14.9 percent among IDPs across the country. Stunting in this particular season is not therefore, a public health problem in Somalia as most population groups reported Low (<20%) to Medium (20-30%) stunting prevalence with the exception of Kismayo IDPs that reported Very High (>40%) prevalence.
- The overall Underweight prevalence in Somalia is 11.1 percent and is considered to be Medium (10-19.9%), with substantial variation across the three zones: 13.5 percent in South and Central Somalia; 10.2 percent in the Northeast and 5.8 percent in the Northwest. However, Kismayo IDP reported 30.1 percent underweight prevalence which is considered Very High (>30%); High underweight prevalence (20-20.9%) was also observed in Bay agro-pastoral livelihood (20.4%), Baidoa IDPs (23.6%), Dolow IDPs (29.7), Garowe IDPs (24.0%) and Galkacyo IDPs (21.4%).
- Concurrent to the nutrition assessments, 36 out of the 40 study population groups were targeted for mortality assessments. The results from these surveys indicated that 34 of the surveys showed Acceptable levels of Under-Five Death Rate (U5DR). However, Mogadishu IDPs and Guban Pastoral had Under-Five Death Rate (U5DR) exceeding 1/10 000/day which is considered as an Alert situation.
- There was no major outbreak in communicable disease reported in this period. However, morbidity incidences in the two weeks prior to the assessments showed higher rates (morbidity >20%) in 25 out of 34 population groups surveyed. Morbidity rates are generally lower among population groups in Northwest parts of the country where GAM prevalence are also lower relative to other parts of Somalia.
- Based on GAM prevalence estimates from the 2015 Deyr nutrition assessments, an estimated 304 700 children under the age of five across Somalia were suffering from acute malnutrition. Out of this total, 58 300 were severely malnourished. Approximately, 58 percent of the acutely malnourished children are found in Southern and Central Somalia, with Lower Shabelle, Banadir and Bay regions accounting for one third of the total. Although GAM prevalence in Mogadishu IDP settlements are relatively lower (10-14.9% GAM or Serious), they deserve particular attention as they account for 51 percent of the total number of acutely malnourished IDP children under-five.
- Nutrition Situation is considered as Critical when Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) prevalence is 15 percent or higher or if 10.7 percent or more of children have Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) below the 12.5 centimetre threshold. The following livelihood zones and population groups have Critical levels of acute malnutrition and are priorities (hotspots) for nutrition programming:
o Guban Pastoral (Awdal and W. Galbeed Regions)
o Garowe IDP, Bosaaso IDP and Bari Urban (Bari Region)
o Galkayo IDP (Mudug Region)
o Coastal Deeh of Central Regions (Mudug and Galgadud)
o Mataban District and Beletweyne District (Hiran Region)
o Bay agro-pastoral (Bay Region) ; and
o Dolow IDP, North Gedo Pastoral, North Gedo Riverine and South Gedo Pastoral (Gedo Region)
- The nutrition situation in the drought affected areas of Northwest agro-pastoral and Northern Inland Pastoral livelihoods (NIP) is also expected to deteriorate to serious levels of acute malnutrition (10-14.9%) through the Jilaal period and until the next Gu rains are fully established in April. Deterioration of the current nutrition situation is also expected in Addun Livelihood.
- Urgent nutrition and health support for the acutely malnourished is needed now and through mid-2016. However, this is not enough for populations experiencing persistently high levels of acute malnutrition. They need additional multifaceted interventions such as the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) movement aimed at addressing the underlying causes and contributing factors.
The full report can be found at the following link: FSNAU 2015 Somalia Post Deyr Nutrition Technical Series report